Sanmartín, M.L., Cordeiro, J.A., Alvarez, M.F. and Leiro, J., 2005. Helminth fauna of the yellow-legged gull Larus cachinnans in Galicia, north-west Spain. Journal of Helminthology, 79(04), pp.361-371.
Thirty-six helminth species were found in 324 gulls examined during June 1994 to February 1996 from different localities of Galicia: 25 trematodes (Brachylaima sp., Brachylecithum microtesticulatum, Cardiocephaloides longicollis, Cryptocotyle lingua, Cryptocotyle concavum, Diplostomum spathaceum, Echinostephilla virgula, Galactosomum phalacrocoracis, Gigantobilharzia acotylea, Gymnophallus deliciosus, Gynaecotyla longiintestinata, Himasthla elongata, Himasthla quissetensis, Knipowitschiatrema nicolai, Levinseniella (Levinseniella) propinqua, Maritrema gratiosum, Maritrema linguilla, Microphallus primas, Microphallus similis, Ornithobilharzia canaliculata, Parorchis acanthus, Phagicola minuta, Psilostomum brevicolle, Renicola sp. and Stephanoprora denticulata), four cestodes (Alcataenia micracantha, Microsomacanthus ductilis, Tetrabothrius (Oriana) erostris and Wardium cirrosa), six nematodes (Anisakis simplex, Contracaecum rudolphii, Cosmocephalus obvelatus), Eucoleus contortus, Paracuaria adunca and Tetrameres (Tetrameres) skrjabini) and one acanthocephalan (Arhythmorhynchus longicollis). Tetrabothrius erostris was the most prevalent species (79.6%), followed by C. obvelatus (47.8%), C. lingua (37.4%), G deliciosus (30.9%), G. longiintestinata (22.8%), P. adunca (21.9%), B. microtesticulatum (17.6%), E. contortus (14.5%) and M. similis (9.3%). Microphallus similis was the dominant species, with a Berger-Parker index (BP) of 0.32, followed by T. erostris (BP=0.10). All species presented an aggregated dispersion except G. acotylea and G. phalacrocoracis, which showed a random dispersion. Species that seem to have the greatest predilection for specific sites along the intestine are: C. longicollis and A. micracantha (first third), Brachylaima sp., M. similis and G. longiintestinata (last third) and A. longicollis (second half). Eight species are known to be pathogenic to commercially important fish or molluscan species and several are pathogenic to humans.