Due to the ability of birds to travel long distances in the air, the potential feeding area of each individual is much larger than that of typical terrestrial animals. This makes birds a convenient indicator of environmental lead (Pb) pollution over large areas, in particular areas of inland and coastal waters. The aim of this study was to assess the concentrations of Pb in various organs of water birds from a variety of locations. The focus was on ducks, geese and swans (Anatidae); herons and egrets (Ardeidae); terns (Sternidae); and gulls (Laridae). This article describes the level of lead in the most commonly studied tissue types: feathers, bones and the liver. The study also presents data concerning the concentration of lead in the eggs of water birds. The highest levels of lead pollution can be observed in China and Korea, related to their high level of industrialization. In Iran too, environmental lead pollution is high, likely due to the developed petrochemical industry. Lead pollution in Japan, as well as in Western European countries (Spain, France, Italy), seems to be much lower than in China, India or Iran. Nevertheless, the level of pollution in Europe is higher than satisfactory, despite the introduction of a number of bans related to, for example, the use of leaded petrol or lead-containing paints. Finally, the USA and Canada appear to be the areas with the lowest lead pollution, possibly due to their low population densities.
Korbecki, J., Gutowska, I., Chlubek, D. and Baranowska-Bosiacka, I., 2019. Lead (Pb) in the tissues of Anatidae, Ardeidae, Sternidae and Laridae of the Northern Hemisphere: a review of environmental studies. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26(13), pp.12631-12647.