Zapata, P., Ballesteros-Cano, R., Colomer, P., Bertolero, A., Viana, P., Lacorte, S., Santos, F.J., 2018. Presence and impact of Stockholm Convention POPs in gull eggs from Spanish and Portuguese natural and national parks. Science of The Total Environment, 633, pp.704-715.
The aim of the present work was to comparatively assess the occurrence and impact of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in nine natural and national parks from Spain and Portugal using gull eggs (Larus michahellis and L. audouinii) as bioindicators of environmental contamination. Sampling was performed during the breeding season of 2016. Compounds studied include polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorinated pesticides (OC pesticides), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and were analyzed using mass spectrometric based techniques. The results showed a high contamination by PCBs in all colonies, with total levels ranging from 59 to 1278 ng/g wet weight (ww), despite their use is not currently authorized. OC pesticides were also present in all colonies, with a high incidence of 4,4′-DDE in gull eggs at levels up to 218 ± 50 ng/g ww in L. michahellis and 760 ± 412 ng/g ww in L. audouinii from the Ebro Delta natural park. PBDEs and PFOS were also detected at levels up to 91.7 ± 21.3 ng/g ww, which can be attributed to a more recent use. Except for PBDEs, the POP levels in eggs from L. audouinii were higher than in L. michahellis, presumably associated to the fish-based diet of the former. Finally, the effect of POP levels on eggshell parameters (volume, eggshell thickness and desiccation index) were investigated for each colony and gull species in order to evaluate the egg viability and, therefore, the reproduction success.